the seed of grass Orzya sativa, is the largest consumed staple food in the world. It is the third highest produced food commodity after maize and sugarcane. Rice can be grown in different regions, and in different environments based on the water availability. In general, water logged area is not an optimal growth condition for rice. However, the crop can survive water logged area and floods.

Unmilled rice, commonly called paddy, is harvested when the moisture condition of the grains is approximately 25%. Asia is by far the largest producer of rice, and it is a staple diet in most Asian countries.

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The traditional methods of cultivating rice, however, include flooding the fields while planting the seedlings. Thus, rice plantation requires proper irrigation. The method also does not allow pest and vermin to thrive.

Rice is rinsed before cooking, to remove the extra starch. However, the rice grains produced in United States contain high values of vitamins and minerals and are not rinsed before cooking. This is to prevent the loss of the essential nutrients. Rice grains are soaked in water to decrease the cooking time. Other types of rice, which include brown rice, can be soaked for longer hours to produce germinated brown rice. Depending on the type of cuisine, rice grains can be mixed either with spices and vegetables to create biriyani, or with sweetener and milk.

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